Oils is a mixture of various types of triglycerides. When oil reacts with alkali solution, sodium salt of fatty acids and glycerin are obtained. A blend of hard oil and soft oil is used for making soap. Soap can be obtained by following process.
For getting soap by full boiled process from oil the soap is grained out of the mixture by adding brine solution. The soap separates out of the mixture. The soap mixture is then allowed to settle overnight. The soap mixture gets separated into different layer. The top layer is soap and bottom layer is spent lye and glycerin. The top layer is drained and again boiled and washed with water, alkali is added to saponify any un-reacted fat present in the soap. The full boiled process takes about 48 hours. Best soap is obtained by this process.
In semi boiled process of making soap from oil the glycerin formed is not separated but it is retained in the soap. So the process is simple and short as no settling is involved.
Cold process of making soap involves the reaction at room temperature. This process is suitable for some oil only.
Nowadays trend is to make soap from fatty acid blend. The fatty acids are obtained on splitting of triglycerides. Glycerin is separated during the process of splitting. Soap is obtained directly by neutralization of fatty acids. It requires less skill. The process is fast and requires less heat.
Completely boiled and neutral mixture in form of paste obtained from the above processes is drained out manually with bucket and allowed to cool in molds.
Saponification can be carried out by following two process :-
Manual Process :-
The Saponification pan is a hemispherical vessel made of mild steel. This process is a manual process and requires constant stirring. Saponification pan is heated at the bottom by means of fire wood. Diesel firing can also be provided. Boiling is a batch type process. Boiling mixture is continuously stirred for homogenous mixing with help of crutches. Boiling is carried out till complete neutralization is obtained. The soap is then taken to drying section for further process.
Mechanized Process :-
Saponification of oil or fat can also be carried in a Saponification vessel which is having a conical end at the bottom. Heating is done by steam coming out of the holes in the spiral pipe. The steam jet also stirs the mass of soap. Since the heating is done by steam there are no chance of burning of soap which sticks to the walls of vessel. For full boiled process brine solution is added which will separate the soap into layers. After the mixture is settled the spent lye is drained and the soap is again washed and boiled. When fatty acids are used the neutralized mixture is directly taken to drying section for further process.
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